Geography: Location: Bihar is a state in the eastern part of India, surrounded by Nepal to the north, West Bengal to the east, Uttar Pradesh to the west, and Jharkhand to the south.

Capital and Major Cities: Capital: Patna

Other Major Cities: Gaya, Muzaffarpur, Bhagalpur


 Ganges (Ganga): The Ganges River flows through Bihar, playing a crucial role in the state’s geography and agriculture.

Historical Significance:

 Magadha Empire: Bihar has a rich historical background, being the seat of the Magadha Empire, which played a significant role in the ancient history of India.

Religious Sites:

Bodh Gaya: A UNESCO World Heritage Site, Bodh Gaya is where Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, attained enlightenment under the Bodhi Tree.

Mahabodhi Temple: Located in Bodh Gaya, it is one of the holiest shrines for Buddhists.

Nalanda University:

 Ancient Seat of Learning: Nalanda University, located near Patna, was a renowned ancient center of learning, attracting scholars from across the world. In recent years, efforts have been made to revive and rebuild the university.

Sonepur Cattle Fair:

 Asia’s Largest Cattle Fair: Held annually in Sonepur, it is one of the largest cattle fairs in Asia, attracting traders and visitors from various parts of India.


Agriculture: Bihar’s economy is predominantly agrarian, with the fertile plains of the Ganges supporting the cultivation of rice, wheat, and various other crops.

Cottage Industries: The state is known for its cottage industries, including handloom and handicrafts.

Language: Bhojpuri and Magahi: While Hindi is the official language, Bhojpuri and Magahi are widely spoken regional languages in Bihar.

Political Importance: Birthplace of Political Movements: Bihar has been historically significant in various political movements, including the Champaran Satyagraha led by Mahatma Gandhi.

Festivals: Chhath Puja: A major festival in Bihar, Chhath Puja is dedicated to the worship of the Sun God. It involves elaborate rituals and celebrations, particularly along the banks of the Ganges.

Transportation: Gandhi Setu: Connecting Patna to Hajipur, the Mahatma Gandhi Setu over the Ganges is one of the longest river bridges in India.

Culture and Folk Dance:


**Bihar is known for its vibrant folk traditions, including the Madhubani paintings and various traditional dance forms such as Jat-Jatin and Sohar-Khilouna.



Notable Educational Institutions: Apart from Nalanda, Bihar is home to institutions like the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Patna and the National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) Patna. 

Kosi River:

 River of Sorrow: The Kosi River, also known as the “Sorrow of Bihar,” is notorious for its frequent floods, impacting the region’s agriculture and settlements.


 Litti Chokha: A popular traditional dish in Bihar, Litti Chokha consists of wheat balls filled with roasted gram flour and served with mashed vegetables.

Bihar School of Yoga:

 International Yoga Center: Located in Munger, the Bihar School of Yoga is a renowned institution for the study and practice of yoga.

Bihar Sharif:

Religious and Cultural Center: Bihar Sharif is a significant center of Islamic culture and education, with historical tombs and monuments.

Mithila Art: Madhubani Painting: Mithila art, especially Madhubani paintings, is a traditional art form that has gained international recognition.


Folk Theatre Pioneer: Bhikhari Thakur, also known as the Shakespeare of Bhojpuri, was a renowned folk artist who contributed significantly to Bhojpuri theatre.


Bihar State Power Holding Company Limited (BSPHCL):

Power Utility: BSPHCL is responsible for the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity in the state.

Karpoori Thakur: Former Chief Minister: Karpoori Thakur, a prominent political figure, served as the Chief Minister of Bihar and implemented several pro-poor policies.




Bihar Diwas:

 State Foundation Day: Celebrated on March 22nd, Bihar Diwas commemorates the formation of the state of Bihar.

 Jal Jivan Hariyali Mission: Water Conservation Initiative: Bihar actively participates in the Jal Jivan Hariyali Mission, a nationwide campaign focusing on water conservation and afforestation.

Rajgir: Historical City: Rajgir is an ancient city associated with both Buddhism and Jainism. It was the capital of the Magadh Mahajanpad in ancient times.


Vikramshila University:

 Ancient Seat of Learning: Vikramshila University, near Bhagalpur, was a major center of Buddhist learning during the Pala Empire.

Bihar Sharif:

Sufi Pilgrimage: Bihar Sharif is a revered Sufi pilgrimage center, known for the tomb of Sufi saint Sheikh Sharfuddin Ahmed Yahya Maneri.

Valmiki National Park:

 Wildlife Conservation: Located in West Champaran, Valmiki National Park is one of the national parks in Bihar, known for its diverse flora and fauna.


 Historical Granary: Golghar in Patna is an architectural landmark built during the British colonial period. It was originally a granary to store grains for the British army.



Patna Sahib Gurudwara: Sikh Pilgrimage: Patna Sahib is a significant Gurudwara, marking the birthplace of Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru.

Rupak Sagar:

Man-made Lake: Rupak Sagar is an ancient artificial lake built by King Bhagirath in Bhagalpur, contributing to the region’s historical and cultural significance.

Mahavir Mandir: Religious Institution: Located in Patna, Mahavir Mandir is a prominent religious institution dedicated to Lord Hanuman.

Gandhi Maidan:

Historical Ground: Gandhi Maidan in Patna has been witness to numerous historical events and political gatherings, including Mahatma Gandhi’s meetings.

Bihari Cuisine: Thecha: A traditional chutney made with green chilies, garlic, and mustard oil, often served with meals in Bihar.

Bihar Diwas: Celebrating Statehood: Bihar Diwas is celebrated annually on March 22nd to commemorate the creation of the state of Bihar.

Bihar School Examination Board (BSEB): Education Board: BSEB is responsible for conducting secondary and senior secondary examinations in the state.

Bodhi Tree, Anand Bihar:

Symbol of Enlightenment: A sapling from the original Bodhi Tree in Bodh Gaya was planted in Anand Bihar, symbolizing the enlightenment of Lord Buddha.

Patna University:

Oldest University: Patna University, established in 1917, is one of the oldest universities in the country.

Barabar Caves: Ancient Rock-cut Caves: The Barabar Caves, dating back to the Maurya period, are famous for their architectural and archaeological significance.

Bihar Museum: Cultural Showcase: The Bihar Museum in Patna showcases the rich cultural heritage of the state, housing artifacts and exhibits from various historical periods.

Chirand Archaeological Site: Prehistoric Site: Chirand is an archaeological site on the banks of the Ganges, revealing evidence of prehistoric human habitation.

Bhagalpur Silk:

Silk Industry: Bhagalpur is renowned for its silk industry, producing exquisite Bhagalpuri silk sarees that are popular across the country.

Nalanda Open University: Distance Education: Nalanda Open University provides distance education, making higher education accessible to a diverse range of students.

Bodhi Day: Enlightenment Celebration: Bodhi Day is celebrated in Bodh Gaya on December 8th to commemorate the day when Siddhartha Gautama attained enlightenment.

Sultanganj Buddha: Ancient Statue: Sultanganj in Bhagalpur is known for an ancient 2.3-meter tall Buddha statue made of sandstone, now preserved in the Birmingham Museum.

Veer Kunwar Singh: Freedom Fighter: Veer Kunwar Singh was a prominent freedom fighter during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, known for his resistance against the British.

Bihar Cricket Association (BCA): Cricket Organization: BCA is responsible for organizing and promoting cricket activities in Bihar, contributing to the development of the sport in the state.

Patna Film Festival: Cinematic Celebration: The Patna Film Festival is an annual event that showcases regional and international films, providing a platform for filmmakers.

Bihar Heritage Development Society (BHDS):

Cultural Preservation: BHDS is actively involved in the preservation and promotion of Bihar’s cultural heritage, organizing events and initiatives.

Bihar Institute of Law:

Legal Education: Located in Patna, the Bihar Institute of Law is a prominent institution offering legal education and contributing to the legal fraternity.

Bihar Police: Law Enforcement: The Bihar Police play a crucial role in maintaining law and order in the state, ensuring the safety and security of its residents.

Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation (BSTDC): Promoting Tourism: BSTDC is responsible for promoting tourism in Bihar, showcasing its historical, cultural, and natural attractions.

Kakolat Falls: Natural Beauty: Kakolat Falls, located in Nawada district, is a scenic waterfall surrounded by lush greenery, attracting tourists for its natural beauty.

Bihar State Disaster Management Authority (BSDMA): Disaster Preparedness: BSDMA works towards disaster risk reduction, preparedness, and response to mitigate the impact of natural disasters in Bihar.

Munger: Historical City: Munger is an ancient city with a rich history and is known for its historical monuments, including Munger Fort and Tomb of Pir Shah Nufa.

Bihar State Information Commission (BSIC): Transparency: BSIC ensures transparency in governance by facilitating access to information and promoting accountability.

Pataliputra Medical College and Hospital (PMCH): Medical Education: PMCH, located in Patna, is a prominent medical college and hospital contributing to healthcare and medical education in the state.

Bihar State Housing Board (BSHB): Housing Development: BSHB is responsible for planning and implementing housing and infrastructure development projects in Bihar.

Makar Sankranti Mela: Religious Fair: The Makar Sankranti Mela in Rajgir is a vibrant fair where people take a holy dip in the Brahma Kund and participate in cultural events.

Bihar Public Service Commission (BPSC): Recruitment Body: BPSC conducts civil services examinations and recruits individuals for various administrative positions in the state.

Manjusha Art: Traditional Art Form: Manjusha art, primarily practiced in the Bhagalpur region, involves creating colorful and geometric patterns, reflecting the cultural identity of Bihar.

Bihar Renewable Energy Development Agency (BREDA): Renewable Energy Initiatives: BREDA works on promoting renewable energy sources and sustainable development practices in Bihar.

Pitrapaksha Mela: Religious Gathering: Held in Gaya, Pitrapaksha Mela is a significant religious event where Hindus pay homage to their ancestors through rituals and ceremonies.

Bihar Chamber of Commerce and Industries (BCCI): Business Advocacy: BCCI plays a key role in representing the interests of businesses, promoting trade, and fostering economic development in Bihar.

Rajgir Dance Festival: Cultural Extravaganza: The Rajgir Dance Festival showcases classical and folk dance forms, attracting performers and enthusiasts from across the country.

Nawada: Historical District: Nawada is known for its historical significance, with archaeological sites like Nalanda and Rajgir in close proximity.

Bihar State Co-operative Bank (BSCB): Co-operative Banking: BSCB facilitates co-operative banking activities, providing financial services to rural and urban areas in Bihar.

Sheohar: Mithila Art Hub: Sheohar is a hub for Mithila art, and the region is known for its intricate and colorful Madhubani paintings.

Bihar State Road Development Corporation (BSRDC): Infrastructure Development: BSRDC focuses on the development of road infrastructure in Bihar, enhancing connectivity and transportation.

Bhagalpur Zoo: Wildlife Conservation: Bhagalpur Zoo is home to various species of animals and contributes to wildlife conservation and education.

Bihar Veterinary College: Veterinary Education: Located in Patna, Bihar Veterinary College is a leading institution offering education and research in veterinary sciences.

Gandak Barrage: Water Management: The Gandak Barrage is a major irrigation and water management project on the Gandak River, contributing to agriculture in the region.

Bihar State Khadi and Village Industries Board (BSKVIB): Promoting Khadi: BSKVIB works towards promoting khadi and village industries, supporting rural employment and sustainable development.

Rajendra Smriti Sangrahalaya: Memorial Museum: Located in Patna, this museum is dedicated to Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President of India, showcasing his life and contributions.

Jai Prakash Narayan Airport (Patna Airport): Air Connectivity: Patna Airport is named after the freedom fighter Jai Prakash Narayan and serves as a major aviation hub in Bihar.

Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary: Biodiversity Conservation: Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary in Kaimur district is known for its diverse flora and fauna, contributing to biodiversity conservation.

Sasaram: Historical City: Sasaram is known for its historical significance, housing the tomb of Sher Shah Suri, an important historical monument.

Bihar State Commission for Protection of Child Rights (BSCPCR): Child Welfare: BSCPCR works towards protecting the rights and welfare of children in Bihar, ensuring their proper development and care.

Purnea University: Higher Education: Purnea University, established in 2018, is a growing institution contributing to higher education in the Purnea region.

Bihar State Disaster Response Force (BSDRF): Emergency Response: BSDRF is a specialized force trained for prompt and effective response to natural and man-made disasters in Bihar.

Jamui: Historical District: Jamui is known for its historical sites and monuments, reflecting its cultural and archaeological significance.

Bihar State Pollution Control Board (BSPCB): Environmental Protection: BSPCB works towards monitoring and controlling pollution, promoting environmental conservation and sustainable development.

Bihar Yoga Bharati: Yoga Education: Bihar Yoga Bharati, located in Munger, is an international center for yogic studies, offering courses and research in yoga.

Bhagalpur Science Centre: Educational Outreach: Bhagalpur Science Centre engages in science education and outreach activities, promoting scientific awareness among students and the public.

Bihar Veterinary College Sanjay Gandhi Institute of Dairy Technology: Dairy Technology Education: This institute, part of Bihar Veterinary College, focuses on education and research in the field of dairy technology.

Jamalpur: Railway Town: Jamalpur is known for its railway workshop, established during the British colonial period, and is one of the oldest railway towns in India.

Bihar State Electronics Development Corporation Limited (BELTRON): Promoting IT: BELTRON works towards promoting information technology and electronics in Bihar, contributing to the state’s digital development.

Veer Kunwar Singh University: Higher Education: Veer Kunwar Singh University, located in Arrah, offers a range of undergraduate and postgraduate programs, contributing to higher education in Bihar.

Darbhanga: Cultural Heritage: Darbhanga is known for its cultural heritage, including the Raj Darbhanga Palace, and has been a center for Mithila art and literature.

Rajgir Hot Springs:

Therapeutic Springs: Rajgir is famous for its hot springs with therapeutic properties, attracting visitors seeking the healing benefits of the natural springs.